What is Vedic Meditation?
Vedic Meditation is one of the oldest, most effortless, and natural forms of meditation. The word Vedic comes from the Sanskrit word Veda, or knowledge. The Vedas are the ancient Indian body of knowledge that is the source of Ayurvedic medicine, yoga, and Indian philosophy. The technique of Vedic Meditation originated in India over 5,000 years ago, and the integrity of the tradition has been passed on through an unbroken line of Vedic Masters from that time, and is referred to in ancient Vedic literature, such as the Bhagavad Gita and the Upanishads.
Vedic Meditation is not a monastic practice. Meaning, it wasn’t designed for people whose spiritual path involves detaching from society. This technique was developed for “householders”—people who are fully engaged in life. Multi-tasking people with active minds who lead busy lives with jobs, relationships, and families.
Although originating in India this is not exclusively “Indian” knowledge. The technique is universal in its nature, practiced by and benefiting people all over the world, regardless of their society, profession, age, religion, or belief system. As the technique triggers a physiological effect in the brain and body, it requires absolutely no faith or belief system to work.
How is the technique practiced?
The Vedic Meditation technique is practiced by sitting comfortably with eyes-closed, and gently using a specific sound, or “mantra,” to naturally settle the mind and body into a state of deep rest. This state goes beyond thought, and is referred to as transcending. Meditators describe this state as supreme inner contentment.
A key feature of this technique is that it does not involve concentration, forced repetition or “chanting” of the mantra. It also does not involve the student learning how to develop a way of paying attention to or monitoring thoughts or activity, as is the case in some other types of mediation. It is effortless, enjoyable, and requires no focus. Due to these attributes, Vedic Meditation can be practiced successfully by anyone, without a lengthy or complex learning process.
Using this technique, your awareness settles down to experience a unique state of restful alertness, an inner wakefulness beyond thought. The state of going beyond thought, or transcendence, that is provided by the Vedic Meditation technique also allows a direct experience of your most essential self, of the “you” that lies beyond all your thoughts and stress and struggles.
What are the benefits of Vedic Meditation?
The restfulness accompanying this form meditation is considerably deeper than that gained through sleep. This profound rest allows deep-rooted stresses to dissolve naturally, bringing innumerable health benefits to the individual (see more below). It is through revisiting this state of restful alertness that meditators report feeling happier, less stressed, improved personal relationships, more creative, more productive, and more adaptable to the demands of life.
What is the relationship between Vedic Meditation, and “Transcendental Meditation,” as taught and promoted by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi?
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi was a revered spiritual teacher from the Shankaracharya lineage of the Vedic tradition.
Ben Turshen teaches Vedic Meditation and was trained to teach this form of meditation as taught by Thom Knoles, who continues to teach Vedic Meditation. Thom was trained as a teacher of Transcendental Meditation (“TM”) by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (“Maharishi”), and taught it for over 25 years with organizations affiliated with Maharishi. Since 1997, Thom has continued to teach meditation as he learned it from Maharishi, and has done so independently and separately from the TM organizations. Ben Turshen is not affiliated with the TM organizations or their current services, processes or programs, which may differ from his services.
What does the scientific research say about this form of meditation?
The form of meditation that Thom Knoles taught for over 25 years with the TM organizations as “Transcendental Meditation,” has been the subject of hundreds of scientific studies showing a wide range of benefits from regular practice. These studies, which refer to this form of meditation using the name “Transcendental Meditation” or “TM”, support the benefits obtainable from regular practice of Vedic Meditation. These benefits include:
- Reduced Stress and Anxiety
- Decreased Depression
- Reduced Insomnia
- Lower Blood Pressure
- Decreased Cholesterol
- Reduced Congestive Heart Failure
- Reduced Atherosclerosis/Stroke
- Decreased Free Radicals
- Reduced Metabolic Syndrome/Pre-Diabetes
- Reduced Cardiovascular Risk Factors
- Reduction in Pain
- Decreased Health Care Costs and Utilization
- Higher Levels of Brain Functioning
- Improved Intelligence, Creativity and Learning Ability
- Improved Academics
- Improved School Behavior
- Benefits for Special and Remedial Education
- Improved Integration of Personality
- Increased Longevity
- Reduced Substance Abuse
Reduced Stress and Anxiety
Alexander C.N., et al. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on stress reduction, health, and employee development: A prospective study in two occupational settings. Anxiety, Stress and Coping: An International Journal 6: 245-262, 1993.
Barnes V. A., et al. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on cardiovascular function at rest and during acute stress in adolescents with high normal blood pressure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 51, 597-605, 2001.
Barnes V. A., et al. Stress, stress reduction, and hypertension in African Americans. Journal of the National Medical Association, 89, 464-476, 1997.
Brooks J.S. and Scarano T. Transcendental Meditation in the treatment of post-Vietnam adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development 64: 212-215, 1985.
Candelent T., et al. Teaching Transcendental Meditation in a psychiatric setting. Hospital & Community Psychiatry 26: 156-159, 1975.
Dillbeck M.C. The effect of the Transcendental Meditation technique on anxiety level. Journal of Clinical Psychology 33: 1076-1078, 1977.
Dillbeck M.C. and Orme-Johnson D. W. Physiological differences between Transcendental Meditation and rest. American Psychologist 42: 879–881, 1987.
Eppley K.R. et al. Differential effects of relaxation techniques on trait anxiety: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology 45: 957-974, 1989.
Gaylord C., et al. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique and progressive muscle relaxation on EEG coherence, stress reactivity, and mental health in black adults. International Journal of Neuroscience 46: 77-86, 1989.
Haratani T., et al. Effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) on the mental health of industrial workers. Japanese Journal of Industrial Health 32: 656, 1990.
Jevning R., et al. The physiology of meditation: a review. A wakeful hypometabolic integrated response. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 16(3):415-24, 1992.
Jevning R., et al. Adrenocortical activity during meditation, Hormonal Behavior 10(1):54-60, Feb. 1978.
Jevning R., et al. The transcendental meditation technique, adrenocortical activity, and implications for stress. Experientia 34(5):618-9, May 15, 1978.
Orme-Johnson D.W. Autonomic stability and Transcendental Meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine 35, 341-349, 1973.
Orme-Johnson, D. W., & Barnes, V. A. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on Trait Anxiety: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 19, 1-12, 2013.
Orme-Johnson D.W. and Walton K. W. All approaches of preventing or reversing effects of stress are not the same. American Journal of Health Promotion 12:297-299, 1998.
Rees B, Travis F, Shapiro D, Chant R. Reduction in post traumatic stress symptoms in Congolese refugees practicing Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2013:1-14.
Rosenthal JZ, Grosswald S, Ross R, Rosenthal N. Effects of transcendental meditation in veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom with posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study. Military Medicine. Jun; 176(6):626-30, 2013.
Schneider R.H. Altered responses of cortisol, GH, TSH and testosterone to acute stress after four months’ practice of Transcendental Meditation (TM). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 746:381-384, 1994.
Sedlmeier, P., Eberth, J., Schwarz, M., Zimmermann, D., & Haarig, F. The psychological effects of meditation: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 138(6), 1139-1171, 2012.
Subrahmanyam S. and Porkodi K. Neurohumoral correlates of Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Biomedicine 1: 73–88, 1980.
Walton K.G., et al. Lowering cortisol and CVD risk in postmenopausal women: a pilot study using the Transcendental Meditation program. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences 1032:211-215, 2005.
Brooks J.S., et al. Transcendental Meditation in the treatment of post-Vietnam adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development, 64:212–215, 1985.
Kniffki C. Tranzendentale Meditation und Autogenes Training- Ein Vergleich (Transcendental Meditation and Autogenic Training: A Comparison). Munich: Kindler Verlag Geist und Psyche, 1979.
Geisler M. Therapeutiche Wirkungen der Transzendentalen Meditation auf drogenkonsumenten (Therapeutic effects of Transcendental Meditation on drug use). Zeitschrift fur Klinische Psychologie 7:235-255, 1978.
Ferguson P.C., et al. Psychological Findings on Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Humanistic Psychology 16:483-488, 1976.
Haratani T., et al. Effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) on the health behavior of industrial workers. Japanese Journal of Public Health 37 (10 Suppl.): 729, 1990.
Ljunggren G. Inflytandet av Transcendental Meditation pa neuroticism, medicinbruk och sömnproblem. Läkartidningen 74(47): 4212–4214, 1977.
Lovell-Smith H. D. Transcendental Meditation—treating the patient as well as the disease. The New Zealand Family Physician 9: 62–65, April 1982.
Orme-Johnson D. W., et al. Meditation in the treatment of chronic pain and insomnia. In National Institutes of Health Technology Assessment Conference on Integration of Behavioral and Relaxation Approaches into the Treatment of Chronic Pain and Insomnia, Bethesda Maryland: National Institutes of Health, 1995.
Lower Blood Pressure
Alexander C.N., et al. Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and longevity: An experimental study with the elderly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57:950-964, 1989.
Alexander C.N., et al. Trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans (part II): sex and risk subgroup analysis. Hypertension 28:228-237, 1996.
Anderson J.W., et al. Blood pressure response to Transcendental Meditation: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Hypertension 21 (3): 310-6, 2008.
Barnes V.A., et al. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on ambulatory blood pressure in African-American adolescents. American Journal of Hypertension 17: 366-369, 2004.
Barnes V. A., et al. Stress, stress reduction, and hypertension in African Americans. Journal of the National Medical Association, 89, 464-476, 1997.
Barnes V. A., et al. Acute effects of Transcendental Meditation on hemodynamic functioning in middle-aged adults. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61, 88, 525-531, 1999.
Rainforth M.V., et al. Stress reduction programs in patients with elevated blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Current Hypertension Reports 9:520–528, 2007. Full article
Schneider R.H., et al. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction in the treatment of hypertension in African Americans during one year. American Journal of Hypertension 18(1): 88-98, 2005. Full article
Schneider R.H., et al. Long-term effects of stress reduction on mortality in persons = 55 years of age with systemic hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology 95:1060-1064, 2005. Full article
Schneider R.H., et al. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans. Hypertension 26: 820-827, 1995.
Cooper M. J., et al. Transcendental Meditation in the management of hypercholesterolemia. Journal of Human Stress 5(4): 24–27, 1979.
Cooper M. J. and Aygen M. M. Effect of Transcendental Meditation on serum cholesterol and blood pressure. Harefuah, Journal of the Israel Medical Association 95(1): 1-2, 1978.
Reduced Congestive Heart Failure
Jayadevappa R., et al. Effectiveness of Transcendental Meditation on functional capacity and quality of life of African Americans with congestive heart failure: a randomized control study. Ethnicity and Disease 17: 72-77, 2007.
Castillo-Richmond A., et al. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on carotid atherosclerosis in hypertensive African Americans, Stroke 31: 568-573, 2000.
Decreased Free Radicals
Schneider R.H., et al. Lower lipid peroxide levels and practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 60: 38-41, 1998.
Van Wijk E.P.A., et al. Anatomical characterization of human ultraweak photon emission in practitioners of Transcendental Meditation and control subjects. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 12:31-38, 1998.
Van Wijk E.P.A., et al. Differential Effects of Relaxation Techniques on Ultraweak Photon Emission. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 14:241-250, 2008.
Reduced Metabolic Syndrome/Pre-Diabetes
Paul-Labrador M., et al. Effects of randomized controlled trial of Transcendental Meditation on components of the metabolic syndrome in subjects with coronary heart disease. Archives of Internal Medicine 166:1218-1224, 2006. Full article
Reduced Cardiovascular Risk Factors
Alexander C.N., et al. Effects of Transcendental Meditation compared to other methods of relaxation and meditation in reducing risk factors, morbidity and mortality. Homeostasis 35:243-264, 1994.
Barnes V.A., and Orme-Johnson D. W. Clinical and Preclinical Applications of the Transcendental Meditation Program® in the Prevention and Treatment of Essential Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease in Youth and Adults: A Research Review. Current Hypertension Reviews 2:207-218, 2006.
Schneider R.H., et al. Cardiovascular disease prevention and health promotion with the Transcendental Meditation program and Maharishi Consciousness-Based Health Care. Ethnicity and Disease 16 (3 Suppl 4):S4-15-26, 2006. Full article
Walton K.G., et al. Review of controlled clinical research on the Transcendental Meditation program and cardiovascular disease: Risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. Cardiology in Review 12(5): 262-266, 2004. Full article
Walton K.G., et al. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease, Part 2: Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in treatment and prevention. Behavioral Medicine 28: 106-123, 2002.
Reduction in Pain
Orme-Johnson D.W, et al. Neuroimaging of meditation’s effect on brain reactivity to pain. NeuroReport 17(12):1359-63, 2006. Full article
Mills W. W. and Farrow J. T. The Transcendental Meditation technique and acute experimental pain. Psychosomatic Medicine 43(2): 157–164, 1981.
Zammara J. W., et al. Usefulness of the Transcendental Meditation program in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. American Journal of Cardiology, 77, 867-870, et al.
Decreased Health Care Costs and Utilization
Herron, R. E. Changes in Physician Costs Among High-Cost Transcendental Meditation Practitioners Compared with High-Cost Non-practitioners Over 5 Years. American Journal of Health Promotion 2011; 26(1): 56–60.
Herron R. E. Can the Transcendental Meditation Program Reduce the Medical Expenditures of Older People? A Longitudinal Cost-Reduction Study in Canada. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 2005; 17(1): 415–442.
Herron, R. E., Hillis, S. L. The Impact of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Government Payments to Physicians in Quebec: An Update. American Journal of Health Promotion 2000; 14(5): 284–291.
Orme-Johnson D. W., Herron R. E. An Innovative Approach to Reducing Medical Care Utilization and Expenditures. American Journal of Managed Care 1997; 3: 135–144.
Herron R. E., et al. The Impact of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Government Payments to Physicians in Quebec. American Journal of Health Promotion 1996; 10: 208–216.
Herron, R.E., et al. Cost-Effective Hypertension Management: Comparison of Drug Therapies with an Alternative Program. American Journal of Managed Care 1996; Vol. II(4): 427–437.
Orme-Johnson D.W. Medical Care Utilization and the Transcendental Meditation Program. Psychosomatic Medicine 1987; 49: 493–507.
Higher Levels of Brain Functioning
Arenander A. and Travis F.T. Brain patterns of Self-awareness. In B Beitman and J Nair, Eds. Self-Awareness Deficits. New York: W.W.Norton, 2004.
Badawi K., et al. Electrophysiologic characteristics of respiratory suspension periods occurring during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 46(3): 267–276, 1984.
Banquet J.P. and Lesevre N. Event-related potentials in altered states of consciousness: Motivation, motor and sensory processes of the brain. Progress in Brain Research 54: 447-453, 1980.
Bennett J.E. and Trinder J. Hemispheric laterality and cognitive style associated with Transcendental Meditation. Psychophysiology 14: 293-296, 1977.
Dillbeck M. C. and Bronson E. C. Short-term longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on EEG power and coherence. International Journal of Neuroscience 14: 147–151, 1981.
Dillbeck M. C., et al. Frontal EEG coherence, H-reflex recovery, concept learning, and the TM-Sidhi program. International Journal of Neuroscience 15: 151–157, 1981.
Gallois P. Modifications neurophysiologiques et respiratoires lors de la pratique des techniques de relaxation. L’Encéphale 10: 139-144, 1984.
Goddard P.H. Reduced age-related declines of P300 latency in elderly practicing Transcendental Meditation. Psychophysiology 26: 529, 1989.
Hebert R., et al. Enhanced EEG alpha time-domain phase synchrony during Transcendental Meditation: Implications for cortical integration theory. Signal Processing, 85(11): 2213-2232, 2005.
Lyubimov N.N. Electrophysiological characteristics of mobilization of hidden brain reserves. Abstracts, the International Symposium “Physiological and Biochemical Basis of Brain Activity” (St. Petersburg, Russia: Russian Academy of Science, Institute of the Human Brain): 5, 1994.
Mason L. I., et al. Electrophysiological correlates of higher states of consciousness during sleep in long-term practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation program. Sleep 20 (2): 102-110, 1997.
McEvoy T.M., et al. Effects of meditation on brainstem auditory evoked potentials. International Journal of Neuroscience 10: 165-170, 1980.
Nidich S.I., et al. Kohlbergian cosmic perspective responses, EEG coherence, and the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Journal of Moral Education 12: 166-173, 1983.
Orme-Johnson D.W. and Haynes C.T. EEG phase coherence, pure consciousness, creativity, and TM-Sidhi experiences. International Journal of Neuroscience 13: 211–217, 1981.
Orme-Johnson D.W. and Gelderloos P. Topographic EEG brain mapping during Yogic Flying. International Journal of Neuroscience 38: 427-434, 1988.
Travis F. Eyes open and TM EEG patterns after one and after eight years of TM practice. Psychophysiology 28 (3a): S58, 1991.
Travis F. and Miskov S. P300 latency and amplitude during eyes-closed rest and Transcendental Meditation practice. Psychophysiology 31: S67 (Abstract), 1994.
Travis F. Patterns of EEG coherence, power, and contingent negative variation characterize the integration of transcendental and waking states. Biological Psychology 61: 293-319, 2002.
Travis F. T. and Orme-Johnson D. W. EEG coherence and power during yogic flying. International Journal of Neuroscience 54: 1–12, 1990.
Wallace R.K., et al. Modification of the paired H reflex through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Experimental Neurology 79: 77-86, 1983.
Yamamoto S., et al. Medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulated cortex in the generation of alpha activity induced by Transcendental Meditation: A magnetoencephalographic study. Acta Medica Okayama, 60(1): 51-58, 2006.
Improved Intelligence, Creativity and Learning Ability
Alexander C. N. and Gackenbach J. Transcendental Meditation and improved performance on intelligence-related measures: A longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 1105–1116, 1991.
Aron A., et al. The Transcendental Meditation program in the college curriculum: A 4-year longitudinal study of effects on cognitive and affective functioning. College Student Journal 15: 140-146, 1981.
Cranson R.W., et al. Transcendental Meditation and improved performance on intelligence-related measures: A longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences 12: 1105-1116, 1991.
Dillbeck M.C., et al. Frontal EEG coherence, H-reflex recovery, concept learning, and the TM-Sidhi program. International Journal of Neuroscience 15: 151-157, 1981.
Dillbeck M.C. Meditation and flexibility of visual perception and verbal problem-solving. Memory & Cognition 10: 207-215, 1982.
Dillbeck M.C., et al. Longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on cognitive ability and cognitive style. Perceptual and Motor Skills 62: 731-738, 1986.
Fergusson L.F., et al. Vedic Science based education and nonverbal intelligence: A preliminary longitudinal study in Cambodia. Higher Education Research and Development 15: 73-82, 1995.
Jedrczak A., et al. The TM-Sidhi programme, age, and brief test of perceptual-motor speed and nonverbal intelligence. Journal of Clinical Psychology 42: 161-164, 1986.
Jedrczak, A., et al. The TM-Sidhi programme, pure consciousness, creativity and intelligence. The Journal of Creative Behavior 19: 270-275, 1985.
So K.T. and Orme-Johnson D. W. Three randomized experiments on the holistic longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on cognition. Intelligence, 29(5), 419-440, 2001.
Tjoa A. Increased intelligence and reduced neuroticism through the Transcendental Meditation program. Gedrag: Tijdschrift voor Psychologie 3: 167-182, 1975.
Travis F. The Transcendental Meditation technique and creativity: A longitudinal study of Cornell University undergraduates. Journal of Creative Behavior 13: 169-180, 1979.
Warner T.Q. Transcendental Meditation and developmental advancement: Mediating abilities and conservation performance. Dissertation Abstracts International 47(8): 3558B, 1987.
So K.T. and Orme-Johnson D.W. Three randomized experiments on the longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on cognition. Intelligence 29: 419-440, 2001.
Fergusson L.C. Field Independence and art achievement in meditating and non-meditating college students. Perceptual and Motor Skills 75: 1171-1175, 1992.
Kember P. The Transcendental Meditation technique and postgraduate academic performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology 55: 164-166, 1985.
Nidich S.I., et al. School effectiveness: Achievement gains at the Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment. Education 107: 49-54, 1986.
Nidich S.I. and Nidich R.J. Increased academic achievement at Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment: A replication study. Education 109: 302-304, 1989.
Improved School Behavior
Barnes V.A., et al. Impact of stress reduction on negative school behavior in adolescents. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1:10, 2003.
Fergusson L.F., et al. Personality and health characteristics of Cambodian undergraduates: A case for student development. Journal of Instructional Psychology 22: 308-319, 1995.
Benefits for Special and Remedial Education
Eyerman J. Transcendental Meditation and mental retardation. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 42: 35-36, 1981
Subrahmanyam S. and Porkodi K. Neurohumoral correlates of Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Biomedicine 1: 73-88, 1980.
Improved Integration of Personality
Alexander C.N., et al. Transcendental consciousness: a fourth state of consciousness beyond sleep, dreaming, and waking. in J. Gackenbach (ed.), Sleep and Dreams: A Sourcebook, New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 282–315, 1986.
Alexander C.N., et al. Growth of higher stages of consciousness: Maharishi’s Vedic psychology of human development. in Charles N. Alexander and Ellen J. Langer (eds.), Higher Stages of Human Development: Perspectives on Adult Growth. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Alexander C. N., et al. Major issues in the exploration of adult growth. In C. N. Alexander and E. J. Langer (Eds.), Higher stages of human development: Perspectives on adult growth (p. 3-32). New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Alexander C. N., et al. Advanced human development in the Vedic Psychology of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi: Theory and research. In M. E. Miller and S. R. Cook-Greuter (Eds.), Transcendence and mature thought in adulthood: The further reaches of adult development (pp. 39-70). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1994.
Alexander C.N., et al. Effect of Practice of The Children’s Transcendental Meditation Technique on Cognitive Stage Development: Acquisition And Consolidation of Conservation, Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 17, 21-46, 2005.
Alexander C.N., et al. Transcendental Meditation, self-actualization, and psychological health: A conceptual overview and statistical meta-analysis. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 6: 189-247, 1991.
Chandler H.M., et al. Transcendental Meditation and postconventional self-development: A 10-year longitudinal study. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 17(1), 93–121, 2005.
Gelderloos P. Cognitive orientation toward positive values in advanced participants of the TM and TM-Sidhi program. Perceptual and Motor Skills 64: 1003-1012, 1987.
Gelderloos P. Field independence of students at Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment and a Montessori school. Perceptual and Motor Skills 65: 613-614, 1987.
Gelderloos P. and Beto, Z. H. A. D. The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and reported experiences of transcendental consciousness. Psychologia—An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient 32(2): 91–103, 1989.
Gelderloos P., et al. Field independence of students at Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment and a Montessori school. Perceptual and Motor Skills 65: 613–614, 1987.
Gelderloos P., et al. Transcendence and psychological health: studies with long-term participants of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Journal of Psychology 124(2), 177–197, 1990.
Jedraczak A. The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and field independence. Perceptual and Motor Skills 59: 999-100, 1984.
Nidich S., et al. Influence of Transcendental Meditation: A replication. Journal of Counseling Psychology 20: 565-566, 1973.
Pelletier K.R. Influence of Transcendental Meditation upon autokinetic perception. Perceptual and Motor Skills 39: 1031-1034, 1974.
Seeman W., et al. Influence of Transcendental Meditation on a measure of self-actualization. Journal of Counseling Psychology 19: 184-187, 1972.
Alexander C.N., et al. Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and longevity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57: 950-964, 1989.
Alexander C. N., et al. The effects of Transcendental Meditation compared to other methods of relaxation in reducing risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. Homeostasis 35, 243-264, 1994.
Barnes V. A., et al. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on mortality in older African Americans—eight year follow-up. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 17(1) 201-216, 2005.
Glaser J. L., et al. Elevated serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) and TM-Sidhi programs. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 15: 327-341, 1992.
Schneider R. H., et al. The Transcendental Meditation program: reducing the risk of heart disease and mortality and improving quality of life in African Americans. Ethnicity and Disease 11; 159-60, 2001.
Schneider R.H., et al. Long-term effects of stress reduction on mortality in persons > 55 years of age with systemic hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology 95: 1060-1064, 2005. Full article
Wallace R.K., et al. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on the aging process. International Journal of Neuroscience 16: 53-58, 1982.
Reduced Substance Abuse
Alexander C.N., et al. Treating and preventing alcohol, nicotine, and drug abuse through Transcendental Meditation: A review and statistical meta-analysis. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 13-87, 1994.
Aron E.N. and Aron A. The patterns of reduction of drug and alcohol use among Transcendental Meditation participants. Bulletin of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors 2: 28-33, 1983.
Clements G., et al. The use of the Transcendental Meditation programme in the prevention of drug abuse and in the treatment of drug-addicted persons. Bulletin on Narcotics 40(1): 51–56, 1988.
Gelderloos P., et al. Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in preventing and treating substance misuse: A review. International Journal of the Addictions 26: 293–325, 1991.
Geisler M. Therapeutische Wirkungen der Transzendentalen Meditation auf Drogenkonsumenten. Zeitschrift für klinische Psychologie 7(4): 235–255, 1978.
Monahan R.J. Secondary prevention of drug dependence through the Transcendental Meditation program in metropolitan Philadelphia. The International Journal of the Addictions 12: 729-754, 1977.
Orme-Johnson D. W. Transcendental Meditation as an epidemiological approach to drug and alcohol abuse: Theory, research, and financial impact evaluation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 11, 119-165, 1994.
Royer A. The role of the Transcendental Meditation technique in promoting smoking cessation: A longitudinal study. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 219-236, 1994.
Shafii M. et al. Meditation and marijuana. American Journal of Psychiatry 131: 60-63, 1974.
Shafii M. et al. Meditation and the prevention of alcohol abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry 132: 942-945, 1975.
Wallace R.K. et al. Decreased drug abuse with Transcendental Meditation: A study of 1,862 subjects. In Drug Abuse: Proceedings of the International Conference, ed. Chris J.D. Zarafonetis (Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger): 369-376, 1972.
Walton K. G., and Levitsky, D.A. A neuroendocrine mechanism for the reduction of drug use and addictions by Transcendental Meditation. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 89-117, 1994.